The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the south-east of Central Asia. The total territory is 143.1 thousand square kilometres. The population is 7,510,800 people (as of October 1, 2009). The capital is Dushanbe. The currency unit is somoni, introduced in October 2000.
The border of Tajikistan is 700 kilometres long from east to west and 350 kilometres long from north to south. The country shares borders to the west and north with Uzbekistan (910 kilometres) and Kyrgyzstan (630 kilometres); to the south with Afghanistan (1,030 kilometres); and to the east with China (430 kilometres).
The climate is continental. The average temperature in June – July is 30 C° to 35 C°. Modern Tajikistan is a mountainous country with absolute altitudes from 300 to 7495 meters above sea level. 93% of the country’s territory is occupied by mountain ranges of the Pamir, Gissar Alay and Tien Shan mountain systems. These ranges are divided by rich and fertile lands of the Fergana, Zerafshan, Vakhsh and Gissar valleys. The geographical complexity and the large amplitude of the mountain system heights determine the exceptional diversity of the plant and animal world.
Tajikistan is the land of the highest peaks, powerful glaciers, rapid, turbulent rivers, unique beautiful lakes, unique vegetation and rare animals. It is the mountain, floor landscape that determines the distinctiveness and uniqueness of the nature of Tajikistan, the richness of its forms brought by the diversity of climatic zones. In the republic, in an hour and a half of flight from the sultry heat of the Vakhsh valley, you can get into the arctic cold of the eternal snows of the Pamirs.
The history of the Tajik people dates back to the depths of centuries, to the beginning of human civilization. The most ancient finds on the territory of modern Tajikistan serve as the evidence. The mountains and valleys of Tajikistan, the peoples who lived on its territory are mentioned in ancient sources of ancient authors: Pliny and Ptolemy. The Venetian traveler Marco Polo wrote about his travelling to the Pamirs.
At the beginning of the 9th century, tendencies toward national self-identification of the people arisen, the first state formations of Tajik people appeared, the largest of which was the Samanid state with its capital in Bukhara, founded by Ismail Somoni from the Samanid dynasty.
The Tajiks made a significant contribution to the spiritual treasury of civilization, gave the world outstanding and remarkable scientists, philosophers, writers, poets and architects whose works have become an integral part of the scientific and cultural baggage accumulated by the world civilization. Examples of this are the lyrics of Abuabdullo Rudaki, the founder of Persian-Tajik literature, the immortal poem “Shahnama” by Abul Qasim Firdausi and “The Canon of Medical Science” Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna), the treatise that for centuries served as the main medical guide in European educational institutions. The world poetry stars: Khayyam, Rumi, Saadi, Hafiz, Jami, masters of artistic creativity Borbad, Mani, Behzod – were known far beyond the boundaries of ancient Sugd, Khorasan and Movarounnahr – the main territory of modern Central Asia.
From ancient times, the territory of Tajikistan lay on the important historical routes of the Great Silk Road connecting the East and the West. It occupied an important place in international trade and cultural exchange.
Today, ancient historical, cultural and handicraft traditions are carefully preserved in the ancient cities of Tajikistan: Khujand, Istaravshan, Panjakent, Kulob, whose appearance has changed significantly over the years.
The Republic of Tajikistan consistently creates favorable conditions for attracting foreign investment, supporting market structures and developing the commercial, financial and banking system. The registration procedure for joint ventures and other enterprises of various forms of ownership is simplified. Thus, according to the new law, enterprises with foreign investments are exempt from paying income tax for a period of 2 to 5 years, depending on the capital invested.
The priority areas of investment in the country’s economy are: hydropower, mining and processing of precious metals and gems, polymetallic ores, the development of telecommunications and infrastructure, processing of cotton and agricultural products. Today, the largest investors in the country’s economy are companies from Canada, USA, UK, Korea, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Hungary and Russia. Among them are Neson Gojd Corporation (gold and silver mining), Gulf International minerals (gold mining), Kabool Textiles and Adjind International (textile production). There are about 200 joint ventures with foreign investors.
The Laws of the Republic of Tajikistan “On state protection and business support in the Republic of Tajikistan”, “On investment”, “On foreign economic activity”, “On joint-stock companies”, “On leasing”, and “On concessions” ensure the protection of the rights, interests and property of foreign investors, create a solid legal basis for the integration of the republic’s economy into the world community, stimulate the participation of foreign investors in the privatization of national economic facilities.
Macroeconomic indicators for 2009:
– Gross domestic product — 20,622.8 million TJS.
– The volume of industrial products (works, services) — 6262.0 million TJS.
– Gross agricultural product — 7903.4 million TJS
– Foreign trade turnover — 3578.7 million USD, including:
– Exports — 1009.9 million USD
– Import — 2568.7 million USD
– Tajikistan had foreign trade relations with 101 countries of the world, including 11 CIS countries and 90 far-abroad countries.
– The share of the CIS countries in foreign trade turnover account for 47%
– The share of the non-CIS countries 53%
Dushanbe City is the capital of the Republic of Tajikistan. As a political and administrative center, it was listed on the world map at the beginning of the XX century. it is located in the scenic and fertile Gissar Valley, at an altitude of 750 – 930 meters above sea level. From the north to the south it is crossed by the Varzob River, from east to the west – by the Kofarnikhon River.
Dushanbe is a wonderful city that has survived happy and woeful days in the past. Today, a sincere desire to revive the former glory of the hospitable capital, where curious tourists and business people have always strived, is awakened. A large kishlak (village) with clay shacks which had over 500 yards and 6-8 thousand people (mostly dekhkans, artisans, pawn brokers, few slaves, servants, arbakeshes), situated on the site of a modern flowering city.
Dushanbe is a city of cozy, quiet architecture. Sightseeing attractions are mainly located on Rudaki Avenue, the longest and most diverse city street. Here is the famous Chinar alley Dushanbe people love to walk along. The symbol of the Tajik statehood bearing the idea of civil consent, national reconciliation and unity is personified by the memorial of Ismail Somoni.
Forums, symposia, summits are held in Dushanbe. Concerts, festivals, music is played everywhere. All of this inspires and gives a huge impulse to people living in Dushanbe, where everything speaks to the heart. The gold scattering of stars, the dazzling shine of the dawn – the ever-green Dushanbe City is seems to be created for poetry.